(in million €) H1 2017 H2 2017 H1 2018
Total turnover 1,562 1,529 1,791
Total revenues (excluding metal) 633 620 709
Recurring EBITDA 109 116 120
Recurring EBIT 81 85 86
Total EBIT 78 83 82
Recurring EBIT margin 12.7% 13.6% 12.2%
R&D expenditure 60 60 68
Capital expenditure 16 29 32
Capital employed, end of period 998 1,150 1,193
Capital employed, average 955 1,074 1,171
Return on capital employed (ROCE) 17% 15.7% 14.7%
Workforce, end of period (fully consolidated) 2,707 2,952 3,026