(in million €) H1 2018 H2 2018 H1 2019
Recurring EBITDA (19) (16) (18)
Recurring EBIT (25) (21) (25)
   of which associates 3 2 5
Total EBIT (18) (22) (25)
R&D expenditure 3 4 5
Capital expenditure 5 10 10
Capital employed, end of period 185 222 196
Capital employed, average 179 204 209
Workforce, end of period (fully consolidated) 1.019 1.070 1.094
Workforce, end of period (associates) 2.485 2.398 2.437