(in million €) H1 2017 H2 2017 H1 2018
Total turnover 3,962 3,365 3,325
Total revenues (excluding metal) 339 311 327
Recurring EBITDA 104 85 112
Recurring EBIT 73 55 79
Total EBIT 70 51 71
Recurring EBIT margin 21.6% 17.6% 24.2%
R&D expenditure 10 9 8
Capital expenditure 25 55 24
Capital employed, end of period 504 475 456
Capital employed, average 501 489 465
Return on capital employed (ROCE) 29.3% 22.3% 34%
Workforce, end of period (fully consolidated) 3,090 3,092 2,842