(in million €) H1 2018 H2 2018 H1 2019
Total turnover 3.325 4.300 4.705
Total revenues (excluding metal) 327 300 313
Recurring EBITDA 112 83 107
Recurring EBIT 79 56 76
Total EBIT 71 55 78
Recurring EBIT margin 24,2% 18,6% 24,4%
R&D expenditure 8 7 4
Capital expenditure 24 45 39
Capital employed, end of period 456 546 482
Capital employed, average 465 501 514
Return on capital employed (ROCE) 34,0% 22,2% 29,7%
Workforce, end of period (fully consolidated) 2.842 2.832 2.931

Note: The European activities of Technical Materials were divested on 31 January 2018